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Resistors

Resistor definition

A resistor is an electronic component used to introduce resistance to limit the flow of electricity, and its resistance value is usually expressed in ohms.
It is used in circuits for a variety of purposes, including limiting current, dividing voltage, current distribution, heating, and signal filtering. Resistors come in many types and are one of the key components in electronic circuits.

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What are resistors made of

Resistors are usually made of conductive materials, depending on the type of resistor.
Common manufacturing materials include carbon films, metal films, metal oxides, thermal and photosensitive materials, etc. These materials are precisely prepared and processed to obtain the required resistance values and performance characteristics. Different types of resistors use different materials to meet various circuit needs.

What are resistors used for?

Resistors are used for many purposes in electronic circuits, including limiting current, dividing voltage, current distribution, heating, signal filtering, circuit calibration, adjusting brightness and volume, etc. They are important components in electronic equipment and are used to meet different circuit needs.

Resistor type

Carbon film resistor: The resistance value of a carbon film resistor is controlled by a layer of carbon film. It is usually used in general electronic applications and has stable performance.
Metal Film Resistors: Metal film resistors use a thin metal film to control the resistance value and have higher accuracy and temperature stability, making them suitable for precision applications.
Metal Oxide Resistors: MOX resistors use metal oxides, such as tin oxide, to control resistance and are typically used in high-temperature environments and high-power applications
Potentiometer: A potentiometer is a variable resistor that allows the user to control the resistance value via a knob or slider and is used to adjust circuit parameters such as brightness and volume controls
Thermistor: The resistance value of the thermistor changes with temperature and is usually used for temperature measurement and control.
Photoresistor: The resistance value of a photoresistor is affected by the intensity of light. It is commonly used in photosensitive circuits and photosensitive applications.
Potentiometer Divider: Potentiometer divider allows voltage to be divided in a circuit and is commonly used in analog signal processing and circuit conditioning.
High Voltage Resistors: High voltage resistors are capable of withstanding high voltages and are often used in high voltage applications such as power systems and high voltage measurement
Precision Resistors: Precision resistors provide high-precision resistance values and are typically used in applications that require extremely high precision, such as laboratory measuring instruments
Surface Mount Resistors: These resistors are designed for use in surface mount technology, commonly used in modern electronics manufacturing

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How resistors work

A resistor works by blocking the flow of electrical current. It contains a resistive element with a specific resistance value and is usually made of a conductive material.
When current passes through a resistor, electrons collide with each other within the resistive element, causing the electrons to lose energy, thereby reducing the intensity of the current.
This process follows Ohm's law, and the resistance value determines how much the resistor blocks the flow of electricity. Applications for resistors include current limiting, voltage dividing, current distribution, resistive heating, signal filtering, and circuit parameter adjustment.

With so many types of resistors, how to choose?

Selecting the appropriate resistor type requires consideration of several factors, including required resistance value, accuracy requirements, temperature coefficient, power handling, application environment, adjustability, cost, and availability.
Taking these factors into consideration ensures that the resistor selected meets the needs of the specific application. In some cases, testing and performance evaluation may be required to ensure that the resistor meets expected requirements. Different resistor types have different characteristics, so selection should be made carefully on a case-by-case basis.

Why circuits need resistors

Circuits require resistors for several reasons, including limiting current, dividing voltage, current distribution, signal filtering, adjusting circuit parameters, temperature measurement, and circuit calibration.
Resistors play an important role in control and protection circuits, ensuring the proper functioning of electronic equipment. They help maintain current and voltage within appropriate ranges while allowing circuit performance to be tuned and optimized.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Resistors

Advantage:
Simplicity: Resistors are easy to use and understand, making them suitable for a variety of electronic applications
Reliability: usually has good long-term stability and is not easily damaged
Low cost: The cost of resistors is relatively low and suitable for mass production
Wide range of applications: Used in a variety of electronic applications including circuit conditioning, current limiting, voltage dividing and signal filtering

Shortcoming:
Energy loss: At current limit, the resistor converts electrical energy into heat, potentially resulting in wasted energy
Accuracy limitations: General resistors have limited accuracy, and for applications requiring high accuracy, more expensive high-precision resistors may be required.
Temperature stability: The resistance value of a resistor often changes with temperature, which can cause problems in temperature-sensitive applications
Limited Adjustability: Some resistor types have limited adjustability that may not meet the needs of some specific applications

Various applications of resistors in daily life:

Street lighting: used to limit current, control brightness and protect lighting equipment
Laptop and mobile chargers: Used in power adapters to limit current to ensure safe charging of devices
Temperature control: used to adjust the temperature of heating equipment to achieve temperature control
Fan speed controller: Used to adjust fan speed to control device heat dissipation and noise
Measuring current: used to measure the current value in a circuit, such as the resistance in a current transformer
Temperature Sensor: Used in thermistors to measure temperature as the resistance value changes with temperature
Online function: used to implement specific functions in the circuit, such as timing circuits and LED flashing control
Voltage division: used to divide voltage into different levels to suit circuit needs
Heating equipment and lighting: used in resistive heating equipment and lighting circuits to adjust temperature and brightness
LED and transistor protection: used to limit current and protect LEDs and transistors from excessive current damage
Timing circuit: A circuit operation used to control a specific time interval, such as a timer
House Lighting Circuit: Used in home lighting systems to control brightness and dimming
Blower Motor Resistors: Used to control motor and blower speed and power
Filter circuit: used to filter out noise and interference in signals
Fusible resistor: Used in circuits to provide overcurrent protection. When the current is too high, the resistor will break to prevent damage.

What kind of resistors do we usually use in life?

Carbon resistors are the most common type of combination resistor. Carbon resistors are inexpensive, general-purpose resistors used in electrical and electronic circuits.

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Why we use zero ohm resistors

Using zero-ohm resistors reduces jumper insertion costs, which is critical for mass production.
Using additional machines for jumper installation requires separate setup and additional process costs. Therefore, zero-ohm resistors are ideal for reducing assembly costs and time.